Effect of a Perioperative, Cardiac Output–Guided Hemodynamic Therapy Algorithm on Outcomes Following Major Gastrointestinal Surgery

Estimates suggest that more than 230 million patients undergo surgery worldwide each year, with reported mortality rates between 1% and 4%. Complications and deaths are most frequent among high-risk patients, those who are older or have comorbid disease, and those who undergo major gastrointestinal or vascular surgery. Importantly, patients who develop complications but survive to hospital discharge have reduced long-term survival.