Goal-Directed Fluid Therapy Guided by Cardiac Monitoring During High-Risk Abdominal Surgery in Adult Patients

Goal-directed fluid therapy based on cardiac output monitoring during high-risk surgery is associated with better tissue perfusion, decreased risk of perioperative complications, improved postoperative rehabilitation, and reduction in hospital length of stay compared with standard hemodynamic monitoring based on clinical parameters (blood pressure, heart rate, andurinary out-put) or use of a central venous catheter.